16 Major Ports in India in 2022 [Ultimate List]

16 Major Ports in India in 2022 [Ultimate List]

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Earlier than diving into the checklist of the key ports in India, let’s discover out extra about India’s sea commerce actions and statistics.


Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Goa, Gujarat, West Bengal, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu are the 9 coastal states that make-up India. One of many largest areas of land that juts out right into a physique of water is India’s intensive shoreline. The nation’s 13 main ports deal with a big quantity of container and cargo site visitors.

The ports of Mumbai, Kandla, Mangalore, JNPT, Mormugao, and Cochin are situated on the west coast. The ports of Chennai, Tuticorin, Visakhapatnam, Paradip, Kolkata, and Ennore are situated on the east coast. Ennore, the final one, is a publicly-traded agency wherein the federal government owns a 68 p.c stake. Port Blair is situated within the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Mumbai is India’s largest pure port.

Maritime transport accounts for round 95 p.c of India’s business quantity and 70 p.c of its buying and selling worth, in response to the Ministry of Delivery. Mr. Narendra Modi, the Prime Minister, renamed the Ministry of Delivery to the Ministry of Ports, Delivery, and Waterways in November 2020.

India has 12 massive ports and 205 minor and intermediate ports which were notified. Six new mega ports might be inbuilt Sagarmala as a part of the Nationwide Perspective Plan for the nation. The ports and delivery trade in India are essential to the nation’s commerce and commerce progress. With a shoreline of round 7,517 kilometers, India is the world’s sixteenth-largest marine nation. The Indian authorities is a key supporter of the port trade.

It has opened up the automated path to one hundred pc FDI for port and harbor constructing and upkeep tasks. It has additionally made it simpler for companies that create, keep, and function ports, inland waterways, and inland ports to reap the benefits of a 10-year tax break.

List of Major Ports in India

Sl. No. Identify Location
1. Kandla Port (INKDL) Kandla, Gujarat
2. Jawaharlal Nehru Port (INNSA ) Maharashtra
3. Mumbai Port ( INBOM) Maharashtra
4. Visakhapatnam Port (INVIZ) Andhra Pradesh
5. Marmagao Port (INMRM) Goa
6. New Mangalore Port (INNML) Karnataka
7. Chennai Port (INMAA) Tamil Nadu
8. Cochin Port (INCOK) Kerala
9. Haldia Port (INHAL) Kolkata
10. Port Blair (INIXZ) Andaman And Nicobar Islands
11. Paradip Port (INPPT) Orissa
12. V. O. Chidambaranar Port (INTUT) Tamil Nadu
13. Kamarajar Port (INENR) Tamil Nadu
14. Port of Mundra (INMUN) Gujarat
15. Port of Kolkata – Syama Prasad Mookerjee Port Belief (INCCU) West Bengal
16. Port of Hazira (INHZR) Gujarat

In India, there are 13 main seaports, 12 of that are run by the Indian authorities and one by a non-public firm (Ennore Port). These seaports are essential to India’s growing financial system’s long-term sustainability and enchancment. The vast majority of India’s commerce passes by these ports. In addition they perform as vacationer points of interest along with being commerce centres.

1. Kandla Port, Gujarat

Kandla Port, Gujarat

Deendayal Port Belief is a seaport and city in Gujarat’s Kutch district, close to Gandhidham, in Western India. It’s a outstanding port on the west coast, located on the Gulf of Kutch. As a result of partition of India, which left the port of Karachi in Pakistan, Kandla Port was constructed within the Nineteen Fifties as the first seaport for Western India.

The Port of Kandla is situated on the Gulf of Kutch on India’s northwestern coast, roughly 256 nautical miles southeast of Pakistan’s Port of Karachi and round 430 nautical miles north-northwest of Mumbai. By quantity of cargo dealt with, Kandla is India’s busiest port. With non-public sector engagement, Kandla Port Belief, India’s busiest main port in recent times, is planning to broaden cargo dealing with capability considerably. In 2008-09, the west coast port dealt with 7,223 crore (72,225 million) tonnes of cargo, up from 6,492 crore (64,920 million) tonnes within the earlier yr.

Whereas dealing with crude oil imports, primarily for Essar Oil’s Vadinar refinery in Gujarat, has contributed to the port’s enlargement, it is usually taking steps to extend non-POL cargo. POL site visitors accounted for 63% of all cargo dealt with at Kandla Port final fiscal yr, up from 59 p.c in 2007-08.

The port will shortly start the method of choosing builders for 4 clear cargo berths with a mixed capability of 8 million tonnes. A 14 m draught will help the 4 berths, which might be able to holding 75,000 dwt boats. The port has already received optimistic suggestions from potential bidders for the undertaking, which is predicted to price near 500 crore.
The port dealt with 10.6 crore (106 million) tonnes of cargo in 2015-16. Below the India Port Act of 1908, Kandla Port was renamed Deendayal Port Belief.

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2. Jawaharlal Nehru Port, Maharashtra (Earlier Generally known as Nhava Sheva)

Jawaharlal Nehru Port: Ports in India

Jawaharlal Nehru Port Pic courtesy: Jawaharlal Nehru Port Belief

The largest container port in India is Jawaharlal Nehru Port, popularly generally known as Nhava Sheva Port. JNPT is situated east of Mumbai, in Maharashtra, and handles nearly all of India’s containerized site visitors in addition to long-haul calls to and from rising markets. When it served MSC Perle, DP World’s “futuristic” Nhava Sheva (India) Gateway Terminal (NSIGT) achieved 6,017 TEUs of mixed exports and imports in round 33 hours, with gross berth productiveness of 141.14 strikes per hour.

The inclusion of a weekly intra-Asian name from HMM has significantly improved the expansion prospects for PSA Worldwide’s new terminal at India’s busiest container gateway, Jawaharlal Nehru Port Belief (JNPT). HMM’s six-vessel China-India Specific (CIX) Service made its BMCT debut on Jan. 2 with a name from the 8,562-TEU Hyundai Loyalty, underlining JNPT’s intra-Asian commerce potential.

The Nhava Sheva Worldwide Container Terminal (NSICT) is leased to a bunch led by P & O, which is now owned by DP World. It was launched in July 2000 and features a 600-meter (2,000-foot) dock with two berths. It has a freight capability of 62.15 million tonnes. The NSICT Container Terminal was India’s first privately run container terminal. GTI (Gateway Terminals India Pvt Ltd), a 3rd container port operated by APM Terminals with a capability of 1.3 million TEUs, was opened in 2006.

By July 2016, NSIGT, a brand new freestanding container terminal with a quay size of 330 metres and a capability of 12.5 million tonnes, might be fully working. PSA Worldwide will construct and function the fourth container terminal, Bharat Mumbai Container Terminals (BMCT). Part 1 of the undertaking, with a capability of two.4 million TEUs per yr, was accomplished in December 2017.

By the tip of Part 2, the terminal can have a full capability of 4.8 million TEUs per yr and a quay size of two,000 metres.

The port started marking cargo with logistics information in 2006. Container Freight Stations and Logistics Parks owned by the federal government and personal gamers, similar to Maharashtra State Warehousing Company, DRT, Gateway District Park, Allcargo, Avashya, Continental Warehousing, Ameya Logistics, TransIndia, and Contegrate Entrepot, present India’s greatest logistics connectivity. The JNPT has been trying to ascertain a direct port supply mannequin for containers, a first-of-its-kind strategy touted as a part of India’s ease of doing enterprise initiative.

3. Mumbai Port, Maharashtra


Mumbai Port

Mumbai Port

The Port of Mumbai is certainly one of India’s most vital ports, and it’s situated in Mumbai, Maharashtra’s capital metropolis. The port includes a 400-square-kilometre pure deepwater harbour that’s protected on the east by the Konkan peninsula and on the west by the Mumbai island.

The port, which opened in 1873, has already served for 137 years. The Mumbai Port Belief is in control of it. The port is 46.3 hectares in dimension, with 63 mooring spots and a complete quay size of seven,800 metres. Pilotage is required for ships weighing greater than 100 tonnes that enter or depart the harbour, in response to the port.

The port was closed for just a few days in August 2010 as a consequence of an oil spill attributable to the collision of service provider boats MSC Chitra and MV Khalija-III 5 nautical miles off the coast of Mumbai. Because the ship slanted after the collision, crude oil containers of the MSC Chitra spilled into the ocean and leaked. Tons of of 1000’s of gallons of oil are thought to have spilled into the Arabian Sea.
The Mumbai Port presents complete seaport providers for cargo dealing with, storage, and supply.

A 126-kilometre highway community connects the port to the remainder of the town. The port has its personal railway system, which is linked to the Central and Western Railway by way of the primary line’s broad gauge. The port’s railway system serves docks, important installations, and factories on its estates, with a monitor size of over 100 kilometres and 5 diesel locomotives.

For generations, ships and boats have used Mumbai Harbour. The Maratha Navy, in addition to the British and Portuguese colonial navies, all employed it. The East India Firm’s Surat Council, seeing the Port’s geographic benefit, pushed for its buy from the Portuguese in 1652.

The ‘Port and Island of Bombay’ have been handed to the king of Nice Britain by way of the Marriage Treaty between Charles II of Nice Britain and the Toddler Catherine of Portugal 9 years later. The primary of the Port’s trendy docks was constructed within the 1870s. On June 26, 1873, the Bombay Port Belief (BPT) was created as an organization. Colonel J.A. Ballard was the group’s first chairman.

4. Visakhapatnam Port, Andhra Pradesh

Visakhapatnam Port

Visakhapatnam Port. Pic courtesy: vizagport.com

Visakhapatnam was a historic port metropolis with ties to the Center East and Rome. Small Masula boats ferried freight from Visakhapatnam shore to ships anchored on open roads. The inscriptions of Sri Bheemeswara Swamy temple (1068 AD) in East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, comprise a reference to a Vizagapatam service provider. Vizagapatam was a fortified mercantile city underneath the management of a guild within the twelfth century AD. In 1682, a department of the East India Firm established a settlement there. In 1882-83, Vizagapatam / Bhimunipatnam dealt with 83 lakh rupees value of merchandise.

Muslin material manufactured at Uppada (East Godavari District), Manganese ore exports to the UK and the US, Oilseeds, jaggery, jute and indigo, hides and skins have been among the many predominant items traded on the anchoring Port. Burma had intensive buying and selling hyperlinks with the US. The Port was ceaselessly frequented by vessels of the British India Steam Navigation Firm.

The necessity for a port on this part of the nation was pressured in a British Survey Celebration report following the institution of British rule in 1858. In 1877, a paper titled Vizag the Port of Central Provinces underlined the significance of constructing a port in Visakhapatnam. The proposal of Col.H.Cartwright Reid of the British Admiralty for the development of a harbour at Visakhapatnam on the mouth of the river Meghadrigedda was solely accredited by the Authorities after the First World Warfare (1914-18).

The Island Break-water, a particular function of the harbour, was constructed by scuttling two outdated ships, JANUS and WELLESDON, which kind the skeleton round which a particles pile is fashioned. Mr.W.C.Ash and Mr. D.B.Rattenberry, two engineers, have been vital in bringing this engineering marvel to life.

The arrival of a passenger vessel from the Scindia Steam Navigation Co., the S.S.JALADURGA, on the seventh of October, 1933, signalled the beginning of ocean site visitors on the Port. His Excellency Lord Willingdon, the then Viceroy and Governor-Normal of India, formally opened the port on December 19, 1933. The Port dealt with 1.3 lakh tonnes of site visitors throughout its first yr of operation. 1.2 lakh tonnes have been exported, whereas 0.1 lakh tonnes have been imported. Manganese ore and groundnuts have been the primary gadgets exported. Rice, flour, tiles, and different consumable gadgets have been among the many gadgets imported. Bullock carts have been used to move the freight.

Throughout World Warfare II (1939-42) the Port grew in significance as a army base. Following the conflict and the nation’s independence, the deliberate enlargement of the Port started with the nation’s 5 Yr Plans. With a purpose to develop the Port’s infrastructure, vital expenditures have been undertaken within the subsequent 5 Yr Plans. The transformation of a tiny port with three berths and yearly site visitors of 1.3 lakh tonnes into a number one Major Port with 24 berths and annual throughput of 65 million tonnes entailed many milestones.

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5. Marmagao Port, Goa

Marmagao Port

Marmagao Port. Pic courtesy: mptgoa.com

It’s no shock that Goa is thought for its seashores, however do you know it’s additionally house to certainly one of India’s largest seaports? The Marmagao Port, situated in south Goa, is certainly one of India’s most tranquil and laid-back ports. This port is certainly one of India’s most well-known vacationer locations, with many individuals flocking to see the operation firsthand. That is certainly one of India’s earliest trendy ports, and it’s for good trigger. Due to how accessible it has grow to be now, the launch of the Konkan railway has boosted the recognition of this port much more.

Mormugao Port, which was established in 1885 and is situated within the state of Goa, is likely one of the oldest ports on the west coast of India, with a protected open fashion pure harbour. It has grown a deep draught channel over time. It is a crucial a part of Goa’s thriving export financial system due to its location on the mouth of the Zuari River. In 1964, it grew to become one of many nation’s main ports, and it has been devoted to the nation’s financial improvement ever since.

Mormugao Port Belief (MPT) is a port in Goa, India’s westernmost state. It’s India’s oldest port, having been inbuilt 1885 on the placement of a pure harbour. Round 2,600 folks work on the port, whereas 4,000 persons are retired. The Mormugao Port Belief, which operates the port, is the Vasco area’s predominant employer, with a complete mini-township in Headland Sada that features faculties, residential complexes, and providers (similar to a hospital) for the Port’s workers.

With round 54.50 million metric tonnes (MMT) of iron ore site visitors in 2010–11, MPT briefly grew to become India’s largest iron ore exporting port (about 90% of this was exported to China). As a consequence of a world decline in iron ore demand, the port’s cargo tonnage declined to 39 MMT in 2011-12, with iron ore accounting for 29.21 MMT.

The MPT’s berths 10 and 11 are designated for coal dealing with. Manganese and bauxite are additionally exported by MPT. Berths 1, 2, and three have been decommissioned in 1992 and handed over to Western India Shipyard Ltd. for the development of a contemporary ship restore facility with a floating dry dock. Berth no. 7 is a berth with a shallow draught that’s meant for the delivery of coastal freight (now given to Adani).

Ships carrying naphtha, ammonium, or phosphorus dock at MPT, and the cargo is transferred by tankers and pipelines to Zuari Indian Oil Tanking Ltd (ZIOL) at Zuarinagar. The 2011 naphtha fires have been the results of a leak in certainly one of these pipelines. Frozen fish, liquor, iron casting, pig iron, and pharmaceutical gadgets have been amongst MPT’s predominant exports in 2014, whereas heavy melting scrap, shredded scrap, potassium carbonate, and metal turning have been amongst its vital imports.

6. New Mangalore Port, Karnataka

New Mangalore Port

New Mangalore Port. Pic courtesy: newmangaloreport.gov.i

Mangalore has a prolonged and illustrious historical past that dates again to the time of the early Christians. The Nice Library of Alexandria, Egypt, comprises texts about Mangalore. As the unique port was situated on the confluence of the Gurpur and Netravati rivers, Roman historical past depicts Mangalore as a port on the mouth of the river Netras (Netravati). Mangalore, dubbed Mangala in Greek play, can also be talked about.

In his travelogue, Ptolemy, the astronomer and nice traveller of the 2nd century, mentions Mangalore. Arab merchants maintained booming commerce in silk and spices between Mangalore and West Asia underneath the Vijayanagara Empire, and it’s now thought to be the Gateway of Karnataka. The Outdated Port (Bunder), situated on the confluence of the Gurupur and Nethravathi rivers, has its personal set of challenges in assembly the increasing demand for marine commerce. The necessity for a brand new port grew to become obvious, and the New Mangalore Port was established.

The title “New Mangalore Port” separates it from the “Mangalore Bunder” or “Outdated Bunder,” an outdated harbour or port in Mangalore metropolis. The traditional harbour, situated south of New Mangalore Port, is now utilised for fishing and small cargo ferries. The port serves the hinterlands of Karnataka and, to a lesser extent, Kerala. Iron ore concentrates and pellets, iron ore fines, manganese, granite stones, espresso, cashew, and containerized items are among the many predominant exports from the port.

Crude and petroleum merchandise, LPG, wooden pulp, lumber logs, completed fertilisers, liquid ammonia, sand, phosphoric acid, different liquid chemical substances, and containerized items are the port’s predominant imports. Cruise ships can dock on the new Mangaluru Port. Worldwide vacationers arrive right here to go to Karnataka’s shoreline area (Karavali). It has a helicopter service for passengers arriving by cruise liner.

In 1962, the Mangalore Harbour Mission was established. The undertaking’s maritime building started in 1968. The New Mangalore Port, Karnataka’s solely main port, was designated because the nation’s ninth main port on Might 4, 1974, and publicly opened on January 11, 1975, by then-Indian Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi. With impact from 1.4.1980, the phrases of the Major Port Belief Act 1963 have been utilized to NMPT. Since then, the Port has served as a hub of exercise for the area’s importers and exporters.

7. Chennai Port, Tamil Nadu

Chennai Port, previously generally known as Madras Port, is India’s second-largest container port, after Nhava Sheva in Mumbai. Within the Bay of Bengal, the port is the most important. It’s the third-oldest port in India, with official port operations starting in 1881, nonetheless maritime buying and selling started a lot earlier, in 1639, on the undeveloped shore.

It’s an all-weather, synthetic harbour with moist docks. Within the post-Independence period, it transitioned from a big journey port to a serious container port. The port is a serious contributor to the town’s improvement and stays a significant component for Tamil Nadu’s financial progress, notably the manufacturing growth in South India.

The town of Chennai earned the nickname “Gateway to South India” on account of the port’s existence. The port has grown into a serious hub for containers, cars, and undertaking cargo on India’s east coast. The port has grown from processing a small quantity of cargo in its early years, primarily oil and motors imports and groundnuts, granite, and ores exports, to carrying greater than 60 million tonnes of cargo in recent times. The port’s container site visitors exceeded a million twenty-foot equal models in 2008. (TEUs).

In 2011, the Chennai Port was rated because the world’s 86th largest container port, with plans to extend capability to virtually 140 million tonnes per yr. It’s an ISO 14001:2004 and ISPS-certified port that has grown right into a mainline port with direct connections to over 50 ports worldwide.

8. Cochin Port, Kerala

Cochin Port

Cochin Port Pic courtesy: https://cochinport.gov.in/

The Cochin Port, prefer it as soon as did, maintains a good relationship with a wide range of companies, together with an oil refinery, cashew and spice exports, marine, and tourism. It has developed to grow to be certainly one of India’s most vital ports, with over 1100 vessels passing by every year. It additionally transports 13.5 million tonnes of freight every year. Even supposing the port amenities are actually on Willington Island, it nonetheless has a big space at Vallarpadam and Puthuvypeen. With the development of the Worldwide Container Terminal on Vallarpadam Island, the Port will quickly grow to be a serious transhipment hub.

Aside from this transhipment port, which might be India’s first of its form, different huge tasks are within the works, similar to the development of an LNG regasification plant close to Puthuvypeen. The Port additionally has cruise terminal and bunkering terminal providers.

Cochin Port has additionally been designated as a stopover for yachts competing within the Volvo Ocean Race. Whatever the season or climate, cruise liners proceed to reach on the port. Naval ships from all around the world dock right here so as to join professionally with the Indian Navy.

Cochin Port expects elevated business partnerships with international locations all around the world now that the e-port service has been launched and transactions have gone on-line. Briefly, Cochin Port is a hive of exercise all year long, and it has performed a major position within the metropolis’s improvement as a serious industrial and business centre.

Growing commerce operations between Kochi and the nations throughout the ocean occurred within the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Ships arriving in Kochi used to berth on the open seas within the early Nineteen Twenties. The lighters – tiny vessels – have been in control of cargo loading and unloading. They have been regularly uncovered to the ferocity of Nature as a result of they have been tethered within the open sea. On account of these points, the buying and selling neighborhood started to induce that the port be expanded.

Between the peninsular headland Vypeen and Fort Kochi, the Cochin Intestine supplies entry to the Port of Cochin. The port’s boundaries embody the entire backwaters, in addition to the creeks and channels that join them. The Cochin Intestine strategy canal is roughly 1000 metres lengthy, with an meant width of 200 metres and a dredged depth of 13.8 metres (now dredging for 16 metres for ICTT).

The channel splits on the abdomen into the Mattancherry and Ernakulam channels, which lead west and east of Willingdon Island, respectively. Wharves, berths, jetties, and stream moorings have been constructed beside these channels to offer berthing amenities for ships.

9. Haldia Port, Kolkata

Haldia Port

Haldia Port

The Haldia port, also called the Haldia Dock Complicated, is situated on the confluence of the Haldi River and the Hooghly River. Because the port’s companion, the Kolkata Port Belief was established. Because of this, it isn’t a port. It’s a government-run dock complicated.

It has an enormous hinterland that features West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Assam, the North East Hill States, and two landlocked neighbouring nations, Nepal and Bhutan, in addition to the Tibetan Autonomous Area (China). Throughput has been progressively growing for the reason that flip of the century.

One of many three Customs Commissionerates within the Kolkata Customs Zone is the Kolkata Customs Port Commissionerate. Commissioner of Customs, Kolkata (Port) has jurisdiction over the ports of Kolkata, Haldia, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the world underneath the jurisdiction of Kolkata, Howrah, and South Suburban Firms, in addition to all lands inside 10 kilometres of the Hoogly river’s excessive watermark at spring tide on both aspect of the river.

Customs is remitted to gather intelligence and conduct investigations linked to particular financial offences and smuggling, along with serving as a income assortment company underneath the Ministry of Finance and as a regulatory wing on behalf of a number of Authorities Departments. The Kolkata Customs (Port) formation generates about 90% of the income obtained within the Kolkata Customs Zone when it comes to income assortment.

Initially, KoPT analysis targeted on river coaching and financial institution safety tasks within the Hugli River’s upstream parts, in addition to within the Kolkata space. Following that, research for the event of port amenities and a navigation channel from Saugor to Kolkata, in addition to just a few estuarine coaching works, have been performed.

10. Port Blair, Andaman And Nicobar Islands

Port Blair Port is a seaport in India’s Andaman and Nicobar Islands’ South Andaman area, near the town of Port Blair. It’s certainly one of India’s largest ports, situated on the Andaman Sea. The Port Blair Port Belief manages the port. From June 1, 2010, all principal provisions of the Major Port Trusts Act, 1963, apply to the key port of Port Blair. With this, Port Blair turns into India’s thirteenth largest port and the only real main port within the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

East Island Port, Mayabunder Port, Elphinston Harbour Rangat Port, Havelock Port, Neil Island Port, Chowra Port, Teressa Port, and Nancowry Harbour Port will all fall underneath the territorial jurisdiction of the Port Blair port.

Port Blair is an upcoming metropolis much like some other minor Indian metropolis, although the seaside has been tarted up a bit, given the fantastic thing about the remainder of the Andamans. It’s made up of people from throughout India, and it may be regarded as a miniature India with no regional or non secular issues.

Aside from Mobile Jail, there are only a few locations value seeing, similar to Ross Island, Barren Island (house to the world’s solely lively volcano), and some others with historic significance. Per week’s journey will take you to the entire island’s must-see points of interest. You possibly can, nonetheless, take a day journey to close by points of interest similar to Wandoor and Ross Island.

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11. Paradip Port, Orissa

Paradip Port

Paradip Port. Pic courtesy: paradipport.gov.in/

Paradip Port is a pure, deep-water port on India’s east coast, situated within the Odisha district of Jagatsinghpur. It’s situated on the junction of the Mahanadi and the Bay of Bengal rivers. It’s about 210 miles south of Kolkata and 260 miles north of Visakhapatnam. The Paradip Port Belief (PPT), an autonomous firm fully owned by the Indian authorities, manages the port.

The Paradip port is certainly one of India’s deepwater seaports, situated alongside the coast of Orissa. The port’s depth allows it to deal with each massive and bulk containers. This port largely handles iron ore and coal. Iron ore is exported in massive portions to Japan.

The variety of exports from this port is all the time larger than the variety of imports. Imports to the Paradip port totaled 6,991 thousand tonnes in 2003, whereas exports totaled 16,910 thousand tonnes. This port even has its personal practice system, which makes transportation handy. The Paradip port has not too long ago obtained an oil jetty that may deal with as much as 8 million tonnes of petroleum merchandise and tankers with a displacement of 85,000 DWT, making it much more environment friendly and higher.

On the third of January 1962, late Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru lay the inspiration stone of the Port close to the confluence of the Mahanadi and the Bay of Bengal. On June 1, 1965, the Authorities of India took over operation of the Port from the Authorities of Odisha. On March twelfth, 1966, the INS “Investigator” earned the honour of changing into the primary ship to dock within the Port.

On the identical day, Late Peter Stambolic, Yugoslavia’s then-Prime Minister, proclaimed the port open. On April 18, 1966, the Indian authorities designated Paradip Port because the nation’s eighth main port, making it the primary main port on the East Coast to open after independence.

The Port of Paradip is run by a Board of Trustees appointed by the Authorities of India, which is headed by the Chairman. The Port of Paradip is an autonomous organisation established underneath the Major Port Trusts Act, 1963, and capabilities underneath the Ministry of Ports, Delivery & Waterways.

The Trustees of the Belief Board are chosen by the Authorities of India from among the many port’s quite a few customers, together with shippers, ship house owners, authorities departments, and port labour. The Chairman, with the help of the Deputy Chairman and different departmental heads, oversees and controls the day-to-day administration.

12. V. O. Chidambaranar Port (Tuticorin Port), Tamil Nadu


V. O. Chidambaranar Port (Tuticorin Port)

V. O. Chidambaranar Port (Tuticorin Port)

V. O. Chidambaranar Port, earlier generally known as the Tuticorin Port, certainly one of India’s 13 predominant ports, is a contemporary port that was not too long ago inbuilt Tamil Nadu. It’s a man-made harbour situated 8 kilometres south of the unique Tuticorin port. The port largely offers with Sri Lanka and is well-connected by rail and highway. Additionally it is Tamil Nadu’s second-largest port.

It is called the Pearl Metropolis and is the most effective place within the Bay of Bengal for pearl fishing. Coal, salt, meals grains, edible oil, sugar, and petroleum merchandise are the most typical commodities traded. Its depth might be expanded to 12.8 metres from the present 10.7 metres, and an outer harbour might be constructed within the close to future.

For greater than 2000 years, Thoothukudi has been a centre for marine commerce and pearl fishing. The Port’s improvement was sparked by the pure harbour’s wealthy hinterland, which started with picket piers and iron screw pile piers, in addition to railway connections. In 1868, Thoothukudi was designated as a small anchorage port. Through the years, there have been quite a few developments.

State governments are usually liable for the event of minor ports.

The Indian authorities can also be conscious {that a} site visitors survey has not too long ago begun. The Authorities of Madras has been contemplating the development of Tuticorin as a deep sea port since 1920. The quite a few plans for the event of Tuticorin Harbour which were submitted to the federal government.

13. Kamarajar Port (Ennore Port), Chennai


Kamarajar Port Restricted, initially Ennore Port, is a public enterprise situated on the Coromandel Coast about 18 kilometres north of Chennai Port. It’s India’s twelfth largest port and the nation’s first. The one vital port that has been corporatized and is registered as a enterprise is Kamarajar Port Restricted. On March 27, 2020, the Chennai Port Belief purchased a 67 p.c possession in Kamarajar Port Restricted from the Centre. The Chennai Port Belief held the remaining 23% of the shares. Personal entrepreneurs have invested $26,000 million in varied terminals and harbour boats on the port.

The primary corporatised port in India, Kamarajar Port Restricted, is designed as Asia’s power port and employs solely 86 folks. Kamarajar Port Restricted is maturing right into a full-fledged port with the potential to deal with a variety of merchandise. It was initially envisioned as a satellite tv for pc port to alleviate congestion and enhance environmental high quality on the busy Chennai Port. The port dealt with a complete quantity of 11.01 million tonnes in 2010–11, up 2.86 p.c from the earlier yr, with an allowable draught of 13.5 m.

On a flat coastal plain generally known as the Japanese Coastal Plains, Ennore Port is situated within the northeastern nook of Chennai Metropolis, Tamil Nadu State. It’s located 2.6 kilometres north of the Ennore Creek on the east coast of the Indian peninsula, generally known as the Coromandel Coast, within the Bay of Bengal. Athipattu Pudunagar is a close-by practice station. The port receives low seasonal temperature fluctuations, starting from a most of 38–42 °C in summer time to a minimal of 18–20 °C in winter, due to its coastal location and proximity to the thermal equator zone.

For many of the yr, the climate is sizzling and humid, and the area has a tropical moist and dry local weather. From September by December, the northeast monsoon winds convey seasonal rains and, on uncommon events, cyclones to the area. The area receives roughly 1400 mm of rain per yr (55 in).

The southwesterly winds prevail between April and October, whereas the northeasterly winds prevail the remainder of the yr. The port is located in a Seismic Zone III space, which signifies a substantial hazard of earthquake. The port and the city of Ennore are separated by Ennore Creek in the direction of the south.

Additionally Learn: Historic Ports in India

14) Port of Mundra

Mundra Port is India’s largest non-public port, situated close to Mundra within the Kutch state of Gujarat on the north shores of the Gulf of Kutch. Beforehand managed by Adani Group’s Mundra Port and Particular Financial Zone Restricted, it was later prolonged into Adani Ports & SEZ Restricted, which now manages many ports.

The Gujarat Maritime Board (GMB) sanctioned the development of a captive jetty at Mundra Port in 1994. The Gujarat Adani Port Ltd., a joint-sector enterprise, was fashioned in 1998, and multi-purpose berths 1 and a pair of at Terminal I have been opened. On October 7, 1998, the MT Alpha-2, a tiny tanker, was the primary ship to anchor. Terminal I’s multi-purpose berths 3 and 4 opened in 1999.

GMB secured a concession association with the Port of Mundra in 2001 for the event, operation, and upkeep of the Mundra port. The non-public Mundra-Adipur railway line was additionally constructed in 2001, and it was linked with Indian Railways in 2002.

Mundra Port’s marine infrastructure consists of ten berths for dry bulk and breakbulk cargo, three berths for liquid cargo, six container berths, certainly one of which is a Ro-Ro berth, three berths for mechanised import cargo, and two single level moorings for crude oil imports. Different berths can take vessels with a most draught of 17 metres, whereas the mechanised import cargo berths can accommodate vessels with a most draught of 19 metres. A 32-metre draught is accessible on the SPM facility.

The port has its personal tug and pilot fleet. Mundra Port additionally has a fleet of dredgers for capital and upkeep dredging, guaranteeing that the port has the deepest draught of all Indian ports. Mundra Port Coal Facility is the most important coal import terminal on the earth. It has an annual capability of 4 crores (40 million) tonnes of coal. It price 2,000 crores ($280 million) to assemble.

15) Port of Kolkata – Syama Prasad Mookerjee Port Belief

The Port of Kolkata or Kolkata Port (KoPT), formally generally known as Syama Prasad Mookerjee Port Belief, is India’s solely riverine main port, situated 203 kilometres (126 miles) from the ocean in Kolkata, West Bengal. It was constructed by the British East India Firm and is India’s oldest working port. Kolkata is a saltwater port with no salinity variations. The port consists of two separate dock techniques: the Kolkata Docks in Kolkata and the Haldia Dock Complicated close to Haldia, which has a deep water dock.

Kolkata Port was British India’s most vital port within the nineteenth century. Following the abolition of slavery in 1833, there was a major demand for sugar cane plantation labourers all through the British Empire. Between 1838 and 1917, the British used this port to ship over half 1,000,000 Indians from throughout India — largely from the Hindi Belt (particularly Bhojpur and Awadh) — to locations world wide as indentured labourers, together with Mauritius, Fiji, South Africa, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, and different Caribbean islands.

In at present’s world, there are thousands and thousands of Indo-Mauritians, Indo-Fijians, and Indo-Caribbeans. Due to causes such because the Partition of Bengal (1947), a drop within the dimension of the port hinterland, and financial stagnation in japanese India, the port’s prominence declined after independence.

Kolkata retailers advocated the institution of a port belief in 1863 as the town elevated in dimension and prominence. In 1866, the colonial authorities established a River Belief, nevertheless it shortly collapsed, and the federal government as soon as once more took over governance. The Calcutta Port Act (Act V of 1870) was lastly accredited in 1870, establishing the workplaces of Calcutta Port Commissioners. Eight jetties have been put in on the Strand between 1869 and 1870. In 1892, a moist dock was inbuilt Khidirpur.

In 1902, the Khidirpur Dock II was constructed. Because the port’s cargo site visitors elevated, so did the demand for extra kerosene, prompting the development of a petroleum wharf at Budge Budge in 1896. The Backyard Attain jetty was inbuilt 1925 to accommodate elevated cargo site visitors. In 1928, a brand new dock named King George’s Dock was opened (it was renamed Netaji Subhash Dock in 1973).

Even supposing the port was designed to be a business port and japanese India’s gateway, it performed a essential position in WWII. The Japanese military bombed it twice. The Commissioners for the Port of Kolkata have been in control of the port after independence till January 1975, when the Major Port Trusts Act, 1963, took impact. The Port is now ruled by a Board of Trustees, which incorporates representatives from the federal government, commerce associations, port customers, labour unions, and different nominated members. Prime Minister Narendra Modi renamed the port Syama Prasad Mookerjee Port on the event of the one hundred and fiftieth anniversary of Kolkata Port’s operation at Netaji Indoor St. on January 12, 2020.

16) Port of Hazira

The port of Hazira (Hazira LNG Terminal and Port) was developed by Hazira Port Personal Ltd (HPPL) underneath the event rights granted by Gujarat Maritime Board (GMB); the port is being developed underneath the BOOT coverage (Construct Personal Function Switch) and might be transferred again to GMB after the 30-year BOOT interval is accomplished. HPPL was based by Shell Fuel BV and Complete Gaz Electricite Holdings France as a three way partnership. Shell Fuel BV has since bought a one hundred pc stake within the firm.

Hazira Port or Surat Port is a deep-water liquefied pure gasoline (LNG) terminal and multi-cargo deep-water port established by Hazira Port Personal Restricted round 20 miles southwest of Surat, India (HPPL). The LNG facility is up and operating, however the cargo port continues to be within the works. Shell Fuel B.V. (Shell) and Complete Gaz Electricité Holdings France have fashioned a three way partnership (Complete). Shell owns 74 p.c of the corporate, whereas Complete owns the remaining.

Bulk, break-bulk, bulk liquid chemical substances, petroleum merchandise & edible oil, containers, cars, and crude are all dealt with by Adani Hazira Port Ltd. (AHPL). AHPL presents good multimodal entry to the northern, north-western, and central areas of India, along with its neighborhood to the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Hall, one of many world’s largest high-tech industrial zones. It additionally serves as an vital worldwide commerce hub for Europe, Africa, North America, and the Center East.

The terminal now has 5 berths with a complete quay size of 1,450 metres and operational draughts various from 12 to 14 metres. The first navigation channel is 7 kilometres lengthy and is marked with beacons and buoys. It has a depth of 12 metres under CD, a width of 300 metres, and a turning radius of 600 metres.

Market Measurement of Major Ports in India

The capability of India’s main ports was 1,534.91 million tonnes each year (MTPA) in FY20. All of India’s main ports dealt with 672.60 million tonnes (MT) of cargo in FY21. In FY21, merchandise exports totaled US$ 255.92 billion (till February 2021). By means of mechanisation, deepening the draught, and fast evacuations, the federal government has taken many steps to extend working effectivity.


The Competitors Fee of India (CCI) authorised Adani Ports and Particular Financial Zone Restricted’s intention to amass 89.6% of Gangavaram Port Restricted in April 2021. Adani Ports introduced an settlement with Vishwa Samudra Holdings Pvt. Ltd. in April 2021 to buy a 25% stake in Adani Krishnapatnam Port Restricted (Krishnapatnam Port) for Rs. 2,800 crore (US$ 226.4 billion).

Adani Ports and Particular Financial Zone Restricted introduced plans to buy 58.1 p.c of Gangavaram Port Restricted for Rs. 36.04 billion (US$ 493.7 million) in March 2021. DVS Raju and his household at present personal the port. Adani Ports introduced in March 2021 that it could companion with John Keells Holdings and the Sri Lankan Ports Authority for 35 years to develop and function the West Container Terminal of the Colombo Port in Sri Lanka.

As a part of its inexperienced port initiatives, the JNPT (Jawaharlal Nehru Port Belief) initiated a complete stable waste administration undertaking in February 2021. The operator of the western Indian port of Mormugoa, Mormugoa Port Belief (MPT), prolonged concessions on iron ore imports and export freight site visitors until June 2021 in November 2020 to assist relieve India’s iron ore delivery commerce within the wake of the COVID-19 outbreak.

JSW Infrastructure accomplished the acquisition of Chettinad Group’s port enterprise for Rs 1,000 crore (US$ 135.50 million) in November 2020. JSW Infrastructure would be capable of personal and function a deep draught worldwide coal terminal and a bulk terminal at Kamarajar Port Restricted (KPL), in addition to a coal and bulk commodity terminal at New Mangalore Port Belief, on account of this transaction (NMPT).

Krishnapatnam Port Firm Ltd. (KPCL) was bought for Rs 12,000 crore (US$ 1.63 billion) by Adani Ports and Particular Financial Zone Restricted (APSEZ) in October 2020. Adani Ports and SEZ Ltd issued an offshore bond sale in July 2020, elevating US$ 750 million.

Between April 2000 and June 2020, India’s port sector obtained a complete of US$ 1.63 billion in FDI. DP World inaugurated a brand new practice service between Kochi and Bangalore in January 2020, decreasing bills and chopping transit time between the 2 cities by greater than 40%.

Authorities Initiatives

The next are a few of the authorities’s vital measures to advertise India’s port sector:

As a result of COVID-19 pandemic, JNPT and New Mangalore Port dealt with 120 tonnes of medical oxygen on a precedence foundation on Might 10, 2021. By the tip of Might 2021, India expects to be totally operational in Iran’s Chabahar Port. India will assemble two terminals on the port and function them for a interval of ten years.

The general funds for the Ministry of Delivery within the Union Funds 2020-21 was Rs. 1,702.35 crore (US$ 233.48 million). In FY22, the principal ports are projected to finish seven public-private partnership tasks valued extra over Rs. 2,000 crore (US$ 274.31 million). During the last 5 years, non-public sector investments in ports have repeatedly elevated, reaching an all-time excessive of US$ 2.35 billion by 2020.

The Finance Minister beneficial doubling ship recycling capability to 4.5 million gentle displacement tonnes (LDT) by 2024, which might add 1.5 lakh jobs in India. To spice up service provider ship flagging in India, the federal government supplied subsidised help totaling Rs. 1,624 crore (US$ 222.74 million) within the Union Funds 2021. In February 2021, India’s Parliament handed the Major Port Authorities Invoice, 2020. The invoice intends to decentralise decision-making and strengthen the governance of main ports.

Highway Forward

The Indian ports sector has a brilliant future as a result of to rising funding and freight circulation. These investments help suppliers of providers similar to operation and upkeep (O&M), pilotage and harbouring, and marine belongings similar to barges and dredgers.

Port capability enlargement is predicted to rise at a CAGR of 5% to six% till 2022, including 275-325 MT of capability. Home rivers have proven to be a cheap and environmentally pleasant supply of freight transportation. By 2030, the federal government hopes to have 23 waterways working.

Between 2015 and 2035, the Sagarmala undertaking will implement about 574 tasks costing Rs. 6 lakh crore (US$ 82 billion). The Ministry of Ports, Delivery and Waterways highlighted 400 tasks with a complete funding potential of Rs 2.25 lakh crore (US$ 31 billion) throughout the Maritime India Summit 2021. In line with a analysis by the Nationwide Transport Growth Coverage Committee, India’s cargo circulation by ports is estimated to exceed 1,695 million metric tonnes by 2021-22.

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